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Featured Articles

2021

Cutaneous innate immune tolerance is mediated by epigenetic control of MAP2K3 by HDAC8/9
Sawada Y, Nakatsuji T, Dokoshi T, Kulkarni NN, Liggins MC, Sen G, Gallo RL. Cutaneous innate immune tolerance is mediated by epigenetic control of MAP2K3 by HDAC8/9. Sci Immunol. 2021 May 21;6(59):eabe1935. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.abe1935. PMID: 34021025. 

Figure 7


Development of a human skin commensal microbe for bacteriotherapy of atopic dermatitis and use in a phase 1 randomized clinical trial.
Nakatsuji T, Hata TR, Tong Y, Cheng JY, Shafiq F, Butcher AM, Salem SS, Brinton SL, Rudman Spergel AK, Johnson K, Jepson B, Calatroni A, David G, Ramirez-Gama M, Taylor P, Leung DYM, Gallo RL. Nat Med. 2021 Apr;27(4):700-709. doi: 10.1038/s41591-021-01256-2. Epub 2021 Feb 22. PMID: 33619370


Diet-induced obesity promotes infection by impairment of the innate antimicrobial defense function of dermal adipocyte progenitors.
Zhang LJ, Guerrero-Juarez CF, Chen SX, Zhang X, Yin M, Li F, Wu S, Chen J, Li M, Liu Y, Jiang SIB, Hata T, Plikus MV, Gallo RL. Sci Transl Med. 2021 Jan 20;13(577):eabb5280. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.abb5280. PMID: 33472955

 

2020

Interplay of Staphylococcal and Host Proteases Promotes Skin Barrier Disruption in Netherton Syndrome.  
Williams MR, Cau L, Wang Y, Kaul D, Sanford JA, Zaramela LS, Khalil S, Butcher AM, Zengler K, Horswill AR, Dupont CL, Hovnanian A, Gallo RL. Cell Rep. 2020 Mar 3;30(9):2923-2933.e7. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2020.02.021. PMID: 32130897

Hyaluronan Degradation by Cemip Regulates Host Defense against Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection.  
Dokoshi T, Zhang LJ, Li F, Nakatsuji T, Butcher A, Yoshida H, Shimoda M, Okada Y, Gallo RL. Cell Rep. 2020 Jan 7;30(1):61-68.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.celrep.2019.12.001. PMID: 31914398

2019

Age-Related Loss of Innate Immune Antimicrobial Function of Dermal Fat Is Mediated by Transforming Growth Factor Beta 
Zhang LJ, Chen SX, Guerrero-Juarez CF, Li F, Tong Y, Liang Y, Liggins M, Chen X, Chen H, Li M, Hata T, Zheng Y, Plikus MV, Gallo RL. Immunity. 2019 Jan 15;50(1):121-136.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2018.11.003. Epub 2018 Dec 26. PMID: 30594464; PMCID: PMC7191997.

PDGRFA dermal fibroblasts


Quorum sensing between bacterial species on the skin protects against epidermal injury in atopic dermatitis
Williams MR, Costa SK, Zaramela LS, Khalil S, Todd DA, Winter HL, Sanford JA, O'Neill AM, Liggins MC, Nakatsuji T, Cech NB, Cheung AL, Zengler K, Horswill AR, Gallo RL.  Sci Transl Med. 2019 May 1;11(490):eaat8329. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aat8329. PMID: 31043573; PMCID: PMC7106486.

Staphylocococcus Aureus


Antimicrobials from human skin commensal bacteria protect against Staphylococcus aureus and are deficient in atopic dermatitis 
Nakatsuji T, Chen TH, Narala S, Chun KA, Two AM, Yun T, Shafiq F, Kotol PF, Bouslimani A, Melnik AV, Latif H, Kim JN, Lockhart A, Artis K, David G, Taylor P, Streib J, Dorrestein PC, Grier A, Gill SR, Zengler K, Hata TR, Leung DY, Gallo RL.  Sci Transl Med. 2017 Feb 22;9(378):eaah4680. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aah4680. PMID: 28228596; PMCID: PMC5600545.

S. aureus aggravates skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis. Photo courtesy of NIAID

2018

Hyaluronidase inhibits reactive adipogenesis and inflammation of colon and skin.
Dokoshi T, Zhang LJ, Nakatsuji T, Adase CA, Sanford JA, Paladini RD, Tanaka H, Fujiya M, Gallo RL. JCI Insight. 2018 Nov 2;3(21):e123072. doi: 10.1172/jci.insight.123072. PMID: 30385720


A commensal strain of Staphylococcus epidermidis protects against skin neoplasia 
Nakatsuji T, Chen TH, Butcher AM, Trzoss LL, Nam SJ, Shirakawa KT, Zhou W, Oh J, Otto M, Fenical W, Gallo RL.  Sci Adv. 2018 Feb 28;4(2):eaao4502. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aao4502. PMID: 29507878; PMCID: PMC5834004.

S. Epidermidis 1457

S. Epidermidis 1457

S. Epidermidis MO34

S. Epidermidis MO34

2017

Antimicrobials from human skin commensal bacteria protect against Staphylococcus aureus and are deficient in atopic dermatitis.  
Nakatsuji T, Chen TH, Narala S, Chun KA, Two AM, Yun T, Shafiq F, Kotol PF, Bouslimani A, Melnik AV, Latif H, Kim JN, Lockhart A, Artis K, David G, Taylor P, Streib J, Dorrestein PC, Grier A, Gill SR, Zengler K, Hata TR, Leung DY, Gallo RL. Sci Transl Med. 2017 Feb 22;9(378):eaah4680. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aah4680. PMID: 28228596

Human Skin Is the Largest Epithelial Surface for Interaction with Microbes.  
Gallo RL. J Invest Dermatol. 2017 Jun;137(6):1213-1214. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2016.11.045. Epub 2017 Apr 8. PMID: 28395897

Notables pre-2017

Antimicrobial Peptides
Zhang LJ, Gallo RL,  2016 Jan 11;26(1):R14-9. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2015.11.017.  

Antimicrobial Peptides: Directly kill microbes and Modulate host immunity

 


Inhibition of HDAC8 and HDAC9 by microbial short-chain fatty acids breaks immune tolerance of the epidermis to TLR ligands 
Sanford JA, Zhang LJ, Williams MR, Gangoiti JA, Huang CM, Gallo RL. Sci Immunol. 2016 Oct 28;1(4):eaah4609. doi: 10.1126/sciimmunol.aah4609. PMID: 28783689.

A: TLR2/6 Stimulation Keratinocytes, B: Impact of SCFA on TLR2/6 mediated gene expression, C: -log10(P-value) chart


Innate immunity. Dermal adipocytes protect against invasive Staphylococcus aureus skin infection.
Zhang LJ, Guerrero-Juarez CF, Hata T, Bapat SP, Ramos R, Plikus MV, Gallo RL. Science. 2015 Jan 2;347(6217):67-71. doi: 10.1126/science.1260972. PMID: 25554785

Injury enhances TLR2 function and antimicrobial peptide expression through a vitamin D-dependent mechanism.
Schauber J, Dorschner RA, Coda AB, Büchau AS, Liu PT, Kiken D, Helfrich YR, Kang S, Elalieh HZ, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Bikle DD, Modlin RL, Gallo RL. J Clin Invest. 2007 Mar;117(3):803-11. doi: 10.1172/JCI30142. Epub 2007 Feb 8. PMID: 17290304

Toll-like receptor triggering of a vitamin D-mediated human antimicrobial response.
Liu PT, Stenger S, Li H, Wenzel L, Tan BH, Krutzik SR, Ochoa MT, Schauber J, Wu K, Meinken C, Kamen DL, Wagner M, Bals R, Steinmeyer A, Zügel U, Gallo RL, Eisenberg D, Hewison M, Hollis BW, Adams JS, Bloom BR, Modlin RL. Science. 2006 Mar 24;311(5768):1770-3. doi: 10.1126/science.1123933. Epub 2006 Feb 23. PMID: 16497887

The 2011 report on dietary reference intakes for calcium and vitamin D from the Institute of Medicine: what clinicians need to know.
Ross AC, Manson JE, Abrams SA, Aloia JF, Brannon PM, Clinton SK, Durazo-Arvizu RA, Gallagher JC, Gallo RL, Jones G, Kovacs CS, Mayne ST, Rosen CJ, Shapses SA. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2011 Jan;96(1):53-8. doi: 10.1210/jc.2010-2704. Epub 2010 Nov 29. PMID: 21118827

Commensal bacteria regulate Toll-like receptor 3-dependent inflammation after skin injury.
Lai Y, Di Nardo A, Nakatsuji T, Leichtle A, Yang Y, Cogen AL, Wu ZR, Hooper LV, Schmidt RR, von Aulock S, Radek KA, Huang CM, Ryan AF, Gallo RL. Nat Med. 2009 Dec;15(12):1377-82. doi: 10.1038/nm.2062. Epub 2009 Nov 22. PMID: 19966777

Increased serine protease activity and cathelicidin promotes skin inflammation in rosacea.
Yamasaki K, Di Nardo A, Bardan A, Murakami M, Ohtake T, Coda A, Dorschner RA, Bonnart C, Descargues P, Hovnanian A, Morhenn VB, Gallo RL. Nat Med. 2007 Aug;13(8):975-80. doi: 10.1038/nm1616. Epub 2007 Aug 5. PMID: 17676051

Endogenous antimicrobial peptides and skin infections in atopic dermatitis.
Ong PY, Ohtake T, Brandt C, Strickland I, Boguniewicz M, Ganz T, Gallo RL, Leung DY. N Engl J Med. 2002 Oct 10;347(15):1151-60. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa021481. PMID: 12374875

Innate antimicrobial peptide protects the skin from invasive bacterial infection.
Nizet V, Ohtake T, Lauth X, Trowbridge J, Rudisill J, Dorschner RA, Pestonjamasp V, Piraino J, Huttner K, Gallo RL. Nature. 2001 Nov 22;414(6862):454-7. doi: 10.1038/35106587. PMID: 11719807

Antimicrobial Peptide LL37 and MAVS Signaling Drive Interferon-β Production by Epidermal Keratinocytes during Skin Injury
Zhang LJ, Sen GL, Ward NL, Johnston A, Chun K, Chen Y, Adase C, Sanford JA, Gao N, Chensee M, Sato E, Fritz Y, Baliwag J, Williams MR, Hata T, Gallo RL.  Immunity. 2016 Jul 19;45(1):119-30. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2016.06.021. PMID: 27438769; PMCID: PMC4957248.

Gallo PubMed.gov References (NCBI)